It’s 11 PM and you’re sitting down at a bar with a friend. You see 2 gorgeous blondes stroll over and sit down across from you (if you’re female, just imagine this from your perspective instead).
You strategize with your friend about what to say and who to approach, you think of the perfect opening line, and then you go up and make your move.
The first girl stops you in your tracks, glares at you, and says, “If you’re going to recite lines from that book, we’ve heard them all before – you can go away now.”
Ouch. What went wrong?
The problem is that it’s 2005 and Neil Strauss has just published The Game, detailing the secret society of pickup artists and the exact tactics they use to get beautiful women night after night.
It became so popular in New York that women learned all about it and instantly knew when a guy was using tactics from the book.
And now a new book by Oren Klaff, a capital markets banker based in LA, might just do the same thing for the world of business and investment banking.
It’s called Pitch Anything, but it could be titled “Persuade Anyone” because that’s what it’s about: how to present an idea so that the other person gets intrigued and ultimately signs on the line which is dotted (yes, Glengarry Glen Ross should be part of your required viewing).
“Wait a minute! I don’t want to work on the sell-side, why would I ever need this? I am a math genius and can sit behind the computer, look at spreadsheets all day, never talk to people, and still make bank!!”
I see where you’re coming from, but even on the buy-side you’ll need to persuade people and pitch your ideas all the time:
- You just got a horrible bonus, only 1% of your P&L. You want to negotiate a better number for next year – how do you approach your fund manager?
- You have a new investment idea and need to present it to the investment committee at your firm. What story will convince them to say “yes”?
- You’ve had enough and are quitting your fund to start a new hedge fund. You need to raise $500 million – how do you sell investors on the idea?
Of course, if you want to keep your bottom-tier bonus, never get any respect from anyone else, and never get the funds to start your own firm, feel free to keep staring at Excel.
When Oren first contacted me and told me about the book, I was skeptical: I get tons of pitches and requests each day and everyone wants me to promote their products and help them out with random favors.
So I let it sit for a while and didn’t get around to reading it until my flight got delayed on a recent trip, I ran out of battery, and I had nothing to do.
And then I almost missed my flight because I couldn’t put it down once I started reading.
The Big Idea(s)
There are many big ideas here, but the ones that stood out most:
- The way you pitch something and the way the other person perceives it are completely different.
- Setting the frame makes all the difference when pitching anything or talking to anyone.
- Don’t pitch numbers or logic – tell stories.
A “frame” is just the way a person views the world and what he uses to doubt whatever you’re pitching.
If he digs into your numbers and calculations and keeps questioning those, he’s using the analyst frame; if he spends 30 minutes talking about himself and then looks out the window when you get a turn to speak, he’s using the power frame.
There are others, and there’s an appropriate way to respond to each of them and “break” the person out of whatever he’s using to belittle you.
How to Use the Book
The section on frames and how to respond to frames, by itself, is so insightful that you’ll probably think of dozens of uses just from that (I recommended the book to other friends after finishing that part).
Here are a few situations where you could use the advice in the book:
Handling Co-Worker Harassment
Let’s say you just started working on the trading desk and the other traders are giving you crap for being the new guy. In addition to making you get lunch each day, they’re also making you pick up their dry cleaning and get gifts for their families.
There are 2 bad ways to handle this situation:
- Do nothing and ignore the traders as they make fun of you.
- “Argue” your way out of it by telling them to respect you.
Doing #1 is the equivalent of getting a terminal illness and not going to see the doctor: you can ignore it, but you’re still going to die.
#2 won’t work because of the same reason it didn’t work on the bully in the playground when you were 10: he’ll ignore you and keep pulling your pants down anyway.
In the book, Oren goes through a few examples of how to use a power-busting frame and other tactics to handle a situation like this and re-assert yourself by lightly defying “the authorities.”
It doesn’t require memorizing long scripts or anything like that, but it does require going outside your comfort zone – but if you want to advance in the industry you better get used to that.
Raising Funds… for Your New Hedge Fund, or Even a Student Group
You’ve dreamed of starting your own hedge fund since you were 10 and first saw Wall Street.
And now, after 15 years of working at other peoples’ funds, you’re ready to raise the $500 million of capital you need for your own.
You’re in a meeting with a potential investor and he is using the analyst frame to nit-pick your numbers and press you on whether or not you can really achieve the returns you’ve outlined.
“So I’ve looked at your IRR calculation here based on the funds invested and the potential cash flow coming from these investments and I wanted to know how you derived the margin right here…”
You do not want to get into an argument over the numbers or go into nitty-gritty detail in response to this.
If they want more detail, you can send it to them after the meeting.
In a situation like this you’d apply intrigue or suspense (by telling a story or starting to tell them something surprising and leaving it open-ended) to get the other person to step back from the numbers.
Oren has a few examples of doing this aggressively in the book – you may not want to implement everything he suggests, but using just the basic ideas can take you a long way.
This first section on frames could be applied to almost any social situation; the other parts of the book are more applicable to pitching itself, but remember: much of your life consists of pitching and persuading other people.
So if you’ve spent more time developing your IQ rather than your EQ, this should be required reading.
Though I’m a big fan, the book is not without problems.
First, if you’re a new analyst or associate, you can’t literally apply all the strategies and stories that Oren shares in the book.
If you show up to work on the first day and start “defying” your MD he’ll get pissed and you will develop a bad reputation.
So you have to do it in moderation and not get carried away with following it to a tee.
Another issue is that the deals described in the book, while big (millions / tens of millions and up) to a normal person, are small by the standards of bulge bracket investment banks.
In practice, most pitches from investment bankers for mega-deals are practically identical – hitting emotional triggers all the time might work, but it may also backfire if the audience is sophisticated and wants things presented in a certain way.
Finally, similar to other popular business books (The 4-Hour Workweek), sometimes the author makes everything seem too easy.
It would have been interesting to explore when the strategies here don’t work as well, or whether they apply to much larger deals as well.
Do You Actually Need to Read This Book?
I’ve gotten lots of questions on what the culture of Wall Street is like and whether or not it’s really a frat house.
Experienced traders aside, at most investment banks analysts and associates are more nerdy than fratty.
That’s what happens when you recruit top-performing students at top schools: you get a bunch of math wizards who are great at Excel but not so great at having difficult conversations.
If you already have a lot of real-world experience dealing with skeptical people, persuading others, and pitching your ideas, maybe you’re an exception to this rule.
But if not, I can’t recommend Pitch Anything highly enough – and at the very least, you’ll be entertained by all the stories within.
The Next Neil Strauss?
So will Pitch Anything become The Game of the investment banking world?
While guys who want to get more girls read everything they can get their hands on, bankers have no time to read or do anything besides pitch, deal, and occasionally snort cocaine.
So unlike that situation with the 2 blondes back in 2005, you won’t suddenly have a market where everyone knows your tricks.
And that’s great news for you, because you can pick up Pitch Anything and start applying the tactics right now – when no one else knows how to respond to your newfound superpowers.